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Integer Rules

Zig supports hex, octal and binary integer literals.

const decimal_int: i32 = 98222;
const hex_int: u8 = 0xff;
const another_hex_int: u8 = 0xFF;
const octal_int: u16 = 0o755;
const binary_int: u8 = 0b11110000;

Underscores may also be placed between digits as a visual separator.

const one_billion: u64 = 1_000_000_000;
const binary_mask: u64 = 0b1_1111_1111;
const permissions: u64 = 0o7_5_5;
const big_address: u64 = 0xFF80_0000_0000_0000;

"Integer Widening" is allowed, which means that integers of a type may coerce to an integer of another type, providing that the new type can fit all of the values that the old type can.

const expect = @import("std").testing.expect;

test "integer widening" {
const a: u8 = 250;
const b: u16 = a;
const c: u32 = b;
try expect(c == a);
}

If you have a value stored in an integer that cannot coerce to the type that you want, @intCast may be used to explicitly convert from one type to the other. If the value given is out of the range of the destination type, this is detectable illegal behaviour.

const expect = @import("std").testing.expect;

test "@intCast" {
const x: u64 = 200;
const y = @as(u8, @intCast(x));
try expect(@TypeOf(y) == u8);
}

Integers, by default, are not allowed to overflow. Overflows are detectable illegal behaviour. Sometimes, being able to overflow integers in a well-defined manner is a wanted behaviour. For this use case, Zig provides overflow operators.

Normal OperatorWrapping Operator
++%
--%
**%
+=+%=
-=-%=
*=*%=
const expect = @import("std").testing.expect;

test "well defined overflow" {
var a: u8 = 255;
a +%= 1;
try expect(a == 0);
}